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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can attenuate chronic pancreatitis
2021-10-15   Source:ganodermanews.com    Hit:62   Font: 
January 27, 2016 / Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin  / Chemico-Biological Interactions

Text/ Wu Tingyao

 
 
The animal experiment of Harbin Northeast Agricultural University confirmed that the polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLPS3) from fermentation broth (GLPS3-Ⅰ), cultured mycelia (GLPS3-Ⅱ) and fruiting body (GLPS3-Ⅲ) all have the effect of attenuating chronic pancreatitis while anti-oxidation is are key to the effectiveness of these polysaccharides. This research result has been published in the journal "Chemico-Biological Interactions" in January 2016.
 
The pancreas, which is "wrapped" by the stomach and small intestine, is a part of the digestive system. Its most well-known function is to secrete insulin, which helps the glucose in the blood enter the cells for its use. In addition, it secretes alkaline "pancreatic juice", which enters the duodenum (the front end of the small intestine and the stomach) through the pancreatic duct. On the one hand, it can neutralize the gastric acid entering the intestine and protect the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, there are a variety of digestive enzymes in pancreatic juice, which can help the small intestine break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
 
When the pancreas is damaged by long-term inflammation, the above-mentioned functions will be affected, and patients may even have a higher chance of getting pancreatic cancer-any tissue or organ that is repeatedly inflamed for a long time will have a high probability of getting cancer, and pancreatic cancer is extremely difficult to treat.
 
Alcohol and genetic genes are considered to be the most common factors leading to chronic inflammation of the pancreas. Auto-attack of the immune system is also one of the possible causes, and many patients cannot find the exact cause. However, regardless of the pathogenic factor, most people with chronic pancreatitis will have severe upper abdominal pain. In severe cases, the pain may even extend to the back. Because abdominal pain is more obvious after eating and drinking, some patients become less daring to eat and drink, which leads to weight loss and malnutrition.

How to reduce the pain of patients is the focus of clinical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Pain killers and anti-inflammatory drugs have become a highly relied solution. The problem is that sometimes drugs may not always work. Although some drugs are effective, they treat the symptoms but not the root cause and patients may become addicted to them. As a result, the recurrence of pancreatitis cannot be avoided. When the pain cannot be alleviated, surgical resection becomes another treatment option in order to get it done once and for all. However, once you choose this therapy, you must adapt to the life of diabetes injecting insulin for a lifetime, which will become a burden that patients must face. Therefore, there is no consensus in the medical community on whether or not the pancreas should be removed and when the operation is suitable.

 
Are there other options for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis? Clinically, it has been found that the level of oxidative pressure and the amount of free radicals generated are key factors that determine the progression of pancreatitis in the direction of deterioration or improvement and the degree of pancreatic damage. If we can start the treatment from the point of "anti-oxidation" in time, it may bring new opportunities for existing treatments-it can not only relieve inflammation, relieve pain but also preserve pancreatic function, or even reduce the chance of pancreatic cancer.

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides from fruiting bodies have been proved by many studies to have good antioxidant function. However, the Ganoderma lucidum mycelium fermentation broth and the Ganoderma lucidum mycelium itself can also be sources of polysaccharides. Therefore, researchers at Northeast Agricultural University used the same variety of Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLPS3) to isolate three polysaccharides with different compositions from its fermentation broth, mycelium (without fermentation broth but with mycelium itself only)and fruiting bodies to explore their antioxidant activity and understand their therapeutic effects on chronic pancreatitis.

The researchers first injected a chemical agent (diethyldithiocarbamate, DDC) into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice to induce chronic inflammation of the pancreas. After a week, they fed the mice with Ganoderma lucidum mycelial fermentation broth polysaccharides, mycelial polysaccharides and fruiting body polysaccharides at 200 mg/kg respectively per day for four weeks. This animal experiment also has divided the mice into three groups, including a traditional Chinese medicine treatment group (the "Qingyi Lidan Pill" commonly used in the treatment of pancreatitis in Chinese medicine), an untreated chronic pancreatitis group, and a healthy normal mice group, to evaluate the effectiveness of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.

In addition to observing the pancreatic tissue sections of mice, this experiment also detects the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of mice (the former two are enzymes that scavenge free radicals while the latter is the product of free radical damage to tissue), as well as the concentrations of interferon INF-γ and interleukin IL-1β (both are cytokines that promote inflammation), so as to understand the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

As a result, no matter which index is used for evaluation, among the three groups of pancreatitis mice that ate Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, the group that ate mycelial polysaccharides showed the best effect. The group that ate the fruiting body polysaccharides showed the second-best effect. The group that ate polysaccharides from mycelial fermentation broth showed the weakest effect. Among them, the antioxidant effect of mycelium polysaccharide and fruiting body polysaccharide is even stronger than that of the traditional Chinese medicine (Qingyi Lidan Pill); and the anti-inflammatory effect of the three kinds of polysaccharides are significantly better than that of Qingyi Lidan Pill.

Furthermore, injecting DDC to damage the pancreas of mice will cause the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) originally present in the pancreatic cells to infiltrate into the blood; accordingly, the digestive enzymes like amylase (AMS) originally secreted by the pancreas will reduce. The three Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can change these two indicators in the serum, showing that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can alleviate the degree of pancreatic damage. Among them, the mycelial polysaccharide has the strongest protective effect.

In addition, the mice with chronic pancreatitis that were orally administered these three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides also weighed almost the same as normal mice, and there was no weight loss often caused by chronic pancreatitis. This is also a sign that the inflammation of the pancreas is under control. It may also imply that the mice that ate Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides did not have the problem of severe abdominal pain, so they could eat and drink normally.

The results of the experiment unexpectedly highlight the excellent antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides. In fact, the in vitro experiments of the same study also showed that the ability of mycelial polysaccharides to scavenge the three different free radicals of OH-, DPPH- and O2-  is slightly better than that of the fruiting body polysaccharide (the two are very close), and the effect is proportional to the dose.

The researchers pointed out in the report that in the polysaccharides obtained from the fermentation broth, mycelium and fruiting bodies, sugars accounted for more than 90% of the overall structure, but the structural composition and molecular weight of these sugars are different. From the currently known research results, it seems that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides with lower molecular weights (such as mycelial polysaccharides) have better antioxidant activity while Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides with higher molecular weights (such as fruiting body polysaccharides) have better antitumor activity.

From the perspective of the structure of polysaccharides, heteropolysaccharides (composed of two or more monosaccharides) and β-glycoside-bonded polysaccharides have higher biological activity. However, what kind of structural features will make it more active in which areas, and what is the relationship between the branch structure connected to the main structure in the polysaccharide structure and these activities? Researchers still cannot see its regularity. They need to conduct more research for further understanding.

It is expected that the scientific community will further clarify the relationship between the structure of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and their antioxidant activity. Researchers also hope that in the future, ideal antioxidant products can be developed from Ganoderma lucidum to provide better treatment solutions for patients with chronic pancreatitis.

[Source] Li K, et al. Three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate DDC-induced chronic pancreatitis in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2016 Jan 27. pii: S0009-2797(16)30013-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.01.013.

 
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About the author/ Ms. Wu Tingyao
Wu Tingyao has been reporting on first-hand Ganoderma information since 1999. She is the author of Healing with Ganoderma (published in The People's Medical Publishing House in April 2017). 
 
★ This article is published under the exclusive authorization of the author. ★ The above works cannot be reproduced, excerpted or used in other ways without the authorization of the author. ★ For violations of the above statement, the author will pursue relevant legal responsibilities. ★ The original text of this article was written in Chinese by Wu Tingyao and translated into English by Alfred Liu. If there is any discrepancy between the translation (English) and the original (Chinese), the original Chinese shall prevail. If readers have any questions, please contact the original author, Ms. Wu Tingyao.
      
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